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Medicos-Hub: Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2011 (CMDT...

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Medicos-Hub: Normal Laboratory Values (Ref. Harrison 18th ed.)

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Medicos-Hub: Differential Dx Mnemonics

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Dr. Shami Bhagat: Recent updates

Dr. Shami Bhagat: Recent updates

IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE


REMEMBERING REAMS...

As we traverse the scholastic ladder from Kindergarten to
college, we tax our memories with an ever-increasing deluge
of information. How we perform during the exam depends
largely on our ability to remember facts, figures, definitions
and diagrams. While rote learning involves a mechanical
regurgitation of facts; answering analytical questions, solving
problems or presenting a cogent argument also depends on our
ability to recall specific information. How can students hone
their memories so that they perform optimally in exams?
Psychologists have long-studied this human faculty and,
students can mine their mental libraries more effectively by
following certain principles.
Foremost, memorising should never be a substitute for
understanding. In fact, the more deeply you understand
content, the more likely you are to remember it. When we read
material in a shallow fashion — merely saying the words aloud
without really processing the meaning behind them — our
memory of that content is likely to fade away rather quickly.
However, if we engage with the material more actively, then
the imprint it leaves on our minds will be stronger. For
example, in an experiment, subjects were asked to read a set
of words on the screen. Half the subjects were told to check if
the words contained either an A or Q, while the other half
were asked to judge whether a word triggered pleasant or
unpleasant thoughts. The subjects in the latter group
remembered twice as many words as those in the former.
Key methods
Thus, asking questions as we read, making connections with
what we have learned earlier, organising information
meaningfully by making tables, rephrasing content in our own
words and drawing diagrams when appropriate are some of the
ways by which we can interact with content more deeply,
thereby increasing our chances of recalling the information.
Cognitive psychologist Daniel Willingham argues that the
human mind is receptive to understanding and remembering
stories; hence, we may take advantage of this proclivity to aid
our memories. For content that lends itself to a story format,
like a history lesson, reorganise the information using a story
structure. Even science lessons, reframed as stories, are better
recalled.
While delving into meaning is integral to learning, we have to
sometimes memorise information by rote. For example, even
after understanding the logic behind formulae, it is most
efficient for us to memorise them to solve problems. Likewise,
we may have to remember a list of facts like the causes leading
up to a battle. Here, we can use mnemonics or memory
strategies like creating anagrams, where every letter of the
word stands for one fact that we have to remember. You may
be creative in devising acronyms, even coining your own
words. Another ancient yet popular technique used by
professional mnemonists is called “Method of Loci.” Suppose,
you have to remember the names of the Presidents of India in
order. Imagine walking through a very familiar place like your
own house. Start at the entrance and imagine placing a picture
of Dr. Rajendra Prasad there. If you don’t know what he
looked like, create a visual mnemonic for his name. So you can
imagine placing ‘prasad’ from a temple at the entrance of your
house to help trigger the name. Next, you can imagine the
mythic Radha and Lord Krishna sitting in the hallway to trigger
the name of Dr. Radhakrishnan. As you mentally move through
the house, continue placing presidents in different locations in
your mind’s eye. Then, when you have to recall the list, all you
have to do is walk through your house!
How often and far apart should you review information? While
individuals differ in the number of revisions they need, spaced
repetition is a technique advocated by cognitive psychologists
where you gradually increase the interval before reviewing
information. Thus, after committing a set of formulae to
memory, you may review them the next day, then after two
days and then after a week. You can pace and space your
studying by alternating between subjects instead of studying
and reviewing the same subject at one go.
As students, we try to remember academic information so that
we can do well in tests. However, research indicates that
testing itself promotes recall. When students take a test, they
remember the content better at a later point as opposed to
those who simply restudy the material. Psychologist, Henry
Roediger and colleagues, who have researched the “testing
effect”, write that “Testing is a powerful means of improving
learning, not just assessing it.” Thus, if you periodically test
yourself while studying, you are more likely to recall
information on the actual test. Adequate sleep is also essential
as sleep actually helps us consolidate information in memory.
(The author is Director, PRAYATNA

Job Interview success

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Body language

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Brain Training

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POWERFUL WAYS TO SHARPEN YOUR MEMORY

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Bhagwad Gita

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The Dream Keeper

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How to answer hard interview questions

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Change your mind, Change your life

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Self Improvement 404 tips

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3 mistakes of my life by chetan bhagat

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ABC of yoga

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28 days to success by Tommy Macken

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Normal Laboratory Values (Ref. Harrison 18th ed.)

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Guyton textbook of medical physiology

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Langman's Medical Embryology

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Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2011 (CMDT)

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LOVE & BAILEY 25th ed

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Hutchinsons Clinical Examination

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Essentials of Anatomy Physiology 5th ed

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GRAY'S Anatomy

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KD Tripathi Pharmacology

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MOTOR NEURON DISEASE

MOTOR NEURON DISEASE

Aetiology is unknown. There is loss of motor neurons and glimpis in motor, motor nuclei of brainstem and anterior horn of spinal cord, with degeneration of costicospinal  tract in spinal cord.

Classification

heriditary
1. Werdnig-Hoffmann disease(infantile spinal muscular atrophy).
2. Kugelberg- welander disease(adolescent spinal muscular atrophy)

sporadic
1.Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
2. Progressive muscular atrophy.
3. Progressive bulbar palsy.
4. Primary lateral sclerosis.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
It is the most common form of progressive motor neuron disease. It is prime example of a neurodegenerative disease and is arguably the most devastating of the neurodegenerative disorder.

Pathology.
The pathologic hallmark of amyotropic lateral sclerosis is involvement of both upper and lower motor neurons.
The affected motor neurons undergo shrinkage wit accumulation of the pigment lipofuscin..Also there occurs proliferation of astroglia and microglia. In ALS, the motor neuron cytoskeleton is typically affected early in the illness..
 The death of peripheral motor neurons leads to denervation and consequent atrophy of the corresponding muscle fibre. This is basis for the term 'amyotrophy'. Loss of costical motor neurons results in thinning of the costicospinal tract.  This loss of fibres in tin lateral column and resulting fibrillary gliosis impart firmness. Hence the term lateral sclerosis.
The most remarkable feature is the selectivity of neuronck celll death. The entire sensory apparatus, the regulatory mechanism for the control and coordination of movement, and the components of the brain that are needed for cognitive processes, remain intact.
Thus motor neurons required for occular movili remains unaffected, as do the parasympathetic neurons in the sacral spinal cord that honesta the sphincters of bowel and bladder.

Clinical manifestations.
1. Weakness caused by denervation is associated with progressive wasting and atrophy of muscles, and particularly early in the illness, spontaneous twitching of motor units, or fasciculations.
2.In hands weakness is more in extensors as compared to flexors.
3. When initial involvement is that of bulbar neuron there is difficulty  with chewing, swallowing, and movements of tongue and face.
4. With prominent costicospinal involvement, there is hyperactivity of the tendon reflexes and spartia resistance to passive movements of affected limbs..
5. Degeneration of corticobulbar projections honesta the brainstem results in dysarthria and exaggeration of the motor expressions of emotion. This results in involuntsy excess in weeping or laughing.
6. Even in the late stages of the illnesss, sensory, bowel and bladder, and cognitive functions are preserved.

Diagnostic guidelines forALS by committe of the World Federation of Neurology.
Motor neurons of
1 bulbar
2. Cervical
3. Thoraccic
4. Lumbosacral
can be involved.
The disorder is termed 'definite' when three or four of above are involved.
Probable when two sites are involved.
Possible when only one site is affected.
Essential for the diagnosis is simultaneous involvement of upper and lower motor neuron.

Investigations
1. Spine radiology
2. EMG
3. Nerve conduction velocity.
4. MRI of spine.
5. Thyroid function test.
6. Lumbar puncture.

Differential diagnosis.
1 tumors in the cervical region or at foramen magnum.
2. Cervical spondylosis.
3.multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block.

Treatment
1. No treatment arrest the underlying pathologic process in ALS.
2. Riluzole 100mg/d produces a modest lengthning of survival.
It is a sodium channel blocker that inhibits glutamate release.
3. Walking aids, respiratory support and physiotherapy are helpful


Obs & Gynecology:Antenatal Examination


Obs & Gynecology:Antenatal Examination
 



Introduction
This is <Mrs.Murphy> ,a <28 year old> <schoolteacher> ,from <Dublin> ,who is <38 weeks pregnant>with her <third>
baby. The reason she is in hospital is
<a routine checkup || breech presentation || preeclampsia || diabetes || PROM || APH || ...>.
Current pregnancy: planned
The pregnancy was
<planned || unexpected>
and
<Mrs. Murphy>
<was || was not>
taking periconceptual folic acid.
[If contraception like OCP failed, you may wish to ask her why it didn't work].
Current pregnancy: confirmation
She had a positive pregnancy test at
<5>
weeks.
She booked into hospital at
<13 weeks>
and an ultrasound scan
<confirmed her menstrual dates>.
<She felt quickening at ... weeks>.
Current pregnancy: Rhesus/rubella
She is
<Rhesus positive || Rhesus negative || uncertain of her Rhesus status>
and
<rubella immune || not rubella immune || uncertain of her rubella status>.
Current pregnancy: breastfeeding
She
<breastfed || bottlefed>
her previous children and intends
<breastfeeding || bottlefeeding>
for this baby.
If breastfeeding and first child:
<She is comfortable with breastfeeding because she has taken a class>.
Current pregnancy: antenatal care
She opted for antenatal care with
<her general practitioner || this hospital>.
Her antenatal course was
<normal until she was admitted to hospital on this occasion || normal except for a ... at ... weeks gestation>.
Current pregnancy: pre-admission events
<Mrs. Murphy>
was admitted to hospital
<4 days>
ago. She complained of
<...>
Current pregnancy: hospital events
Since coming into hospital, the investigations she have had are
<....>
which showed
<...>.
<Mrs. Murphy>
tells me that she is being kept in the hospital
<for observation>.
Past medical surgical history
On briefly reviewing Mrs. Murphy's past medical and surgical history...

Family history
In her family history...
In particular, there is
<no family history>
of diabetes, and
<no>
twins in the family.
Social history
With regard to social history,
<Mrs. Murphy>
works as a
<schoolteacher>.
<She also works at home looking after her children>.
She is due to go on a
<3 month>
maternity leave in
<1 week>.

She is residing in
<a 2 bedroom apartment>.
Her husband works as a
<lawyer>.
Her children are being looked after by
<the children's grandmother>.

<Mrs. Murphy>
<does not smoke || smokes ... cigarettes a day>

Prior to the pregnancy, she
<did not smoke || smoked ... cigarettes a day>.
She has
<not taken any alcohol || has restricted herself to ... units of alcohol per week>
since finding out she was pregnant.
She
<is>
taking iron and folic acid supplements.
Gynecological history
With regards to
<Mrs. Murphy's>
past gynecological history...
Her last smear test was in
<1996>,
it was
<normal>,
and
<all of her smear tests have been normal>.
Obstetrical history
Turning our attention to
<Mrs. Murphy's>
previous obstetrical history, she has
<two girls>,
aged
<2 and 4 years>.
They are
<both well>.
If an abnormal pregnancy, full details:
In her first pregnancy, she
<was induced>
at
<39 weeks>,
and after
<2 hours || 6 hours [depending on if making start of labour as when enter labour ward]>,
<under went a Cesarean section>
because of
<fetal distress>.
The cesarean section was performed
<under epidural>.
The baby weighed
<2.5kg>
at birth and
<was not admitted || was admitted for ... days>
to the neonatal unit.
She had
<no post-operative complications || post-operative complications of ...>.
If a normal pregnancy, brief:
In her second pregnancy, she
<went into spontaneous labor>
at
<40>
weeks
and had
<a normal vaginal delivery>.
The baby weighed
<3.0kg>.
If a miscarriage, also brief:
<Mrs. Murphy>
also had
<1>
miscarriage
<14>
months ago
at
<10 weeks>
and
<underwent ERPC>.
Current pregnancy: LMP
Focusing our attention on this pregnancy, the first day of
<Mrs. Murphy's>
last menstrual period was
<Sept 18th>.
She is
<certain || uncertain>
of the date, because she
<wrote it in her diary || remembers the day of conception>.
She has a
<regular>
<28 day>

cycle, and
<stopped the combined oral contraceptive pill>
<6 months>
before becoming pregnant.
By Nageles's rule, her estimated date of delivery is
<June 25th>.
Summary of history
In summary, therefore, this is
<Mrs. Murphy>,
a
<28 year old>
<schoolteacher>,
from
<Dublin>,
who is
<38 weeks pregnant>
with her
<third>
baby.
The reason she is in hospital is
<a routine checkup || breech presentation || preeclampsia || diabetes || PROM || APH || ...>.
<Mrs. Murphy>
is being kept in the hospital
<for observation>.
Examination: general
<Mrs. Murphy>
looks
<clinically well>.
Examination: vitals
Her temperature is
<36.9º Celsius>.
Her pulse is
<80 bpm, regular rhythm, and normal character and volume>.
Her blood pressure is
<124/80>.
Her respiratory rate is
<18>.
Her urine sample is
<normal || shows elevated <protein || glucose || ...>.
Examination: disease specifics
[If she is in hospital for a disease, describe the relevant findings. For example, if preeclampsia:
She has
<pedal edema || no evidence of pedal edema>
and her lower deep tendon reflexes
<are || are not>
elevated.]
Examination: inspection
On inspection of the abdomen, there is an
<ovoid || globular>
swelling, consistent with
<the pregnant state || a ... trimester pregnancy>.
There
<are || are no>
cutaneous signs of pregnancy, such as striae gravidarum and linea nigra.
There
<are no visible scars || are visible scars consistent with a prior...>.
There
<are || are no>
visible fetal movements.
Examination: palpation
[Ask mother if tender anywhere on abdomen before touching, and also ask her to mention any discomfort of if feel faint during the examination].
I measured the symphysio-fundal height on the inches side to reduce observer error, and found it to be
<38 centimetres>,
which
<is || is not>
compatible with gestation.
The fetal parts that I feel in the fundus appear to be the
<breech>
as they are
<soft, irregular, and non-ballotable>.
The lie is
<longitudinal || transverse || oblique>
and the back would appear to be on the
<right || left>
as it offers more resistance to palpation and I feel small parts on the opposite side.
The presentation appears to be
<cephalic || breech || shoulder>.
The head
<is || is not>
engaged.
The fetus appears clinically
<normal || small || large>
in size.
The liquor volume appears clinically
<normal || reduced || increased>.
[Some obstetricians may ask about your liquor volume devining abilities: "Really? The liquor volume is normal? Perhaps we should toss out our expensive ultrasound and pay you instead." That is why it is important for you to include "clinically" in the desciption-- it is "clinically normal".]
Examination auscultation
The fetal heart is best heard over the
<back>
and
<below the level>
of the umbilicus, and is
<normal>.
Examination: summary
This is a
<singleton || multiple>
pregnancy,
<longitudinal || transverse || oblique>
lie,
<cephalic || breech>
presentation, the head
<is || is not engaged>,
the fetus is clinically
<normal || large || small>
in size, the liquor volume is clinically
<normal || reduced || increased>,
and the fetal heart is
<normal>.
Postnatal Physical Examination :
Introduction
This is
<Mrs. || Miss || Ms.>
<O'Connor
>,
a
<34 year old>
<secretary>,
from
<Dublin>,
who delivered her
<first>
baby
<two>
days ago at
<40>
weeks gestation, a
<boy || girl>
named
<Clair>
by
<spontaneous vaginal || assisted vaginal || breech || Cesarean section>
delivery,
<is || is planning>
<bottle || breast>
feeding, and
<both baby and mother are well>.
Past history
<She is a longterm diabetic, which is successfully managed with insulin>.
<She had a PDA repair in 1969>
.
<In her Obstetric history, her prior child had congenital deafness>.
<Her mother and 3 sisters all had at least one post-partum hemorrhage>.
<She smoked one pack a day since she was 16, but since finding out she was pregnant, she has limited herself to one or two cigarettes per week>.
<Before her pregnancy she consumed 3 units of alcohol per week, but she has not taken any alcohol since finding out she was pregnant>.
<She is not on any medications, and she has no allergies>.
Current pregnancy
First day of her LMP was
<November 20th>
and she is
<certain || uncertain>
of her dates, because
<she wrote it in her diary || remembers the time of conception>.
By Nagele's rule, her estimated date of delivery is
<August 27th>.
An ultrasound scan at
<13 weeks>
<confirmed her dates>
.
Her pregnancy was
<uneventful, except for a .... at 35 weeks gestation>.
She is Rhesus
<positive || negative>
and
<is || is not>
Rubella immune.
Labour: onset/duration
<Mrs. O'Connor's>
labour began with
<painful uterine contractions ... minutes apart, increasing in duration and frequency>
at
<1:00 am on Tuesday morning>
followed by
<a show and spontaneous rupture of membrane || a show but no spontaneous rupture of membrane || a spontaneous rupture of membrane || neither show nor spontaneous rupture of membrane>.
She was admitted to hospital at
<8:45 am>
by which time her cervix had dilated to
<3 cm>.
She was admitted to the antenatal ward. She was examined by the
<midwife>
and her cervix was found to be effaced and cervix dilated to
<7cm>.
A diagnosis of labour was made, and she was sent to delivery.
The first stage lasted for
<2 hours [some hospitals specify labour as time from admission to labor unit] || 9 hours>,
the second stage lasted for
<20 minutes>.
She was given
<10 units/1000mL IV of oxytocin || 500 micrograms/1ml IM of ergometrine>.
Labour: analgesia
For anaglesia, she first tried
<Nitrous oxide by inhalation>,
but subsequently requested
<an epidural at 8:45am>
which
<gave adequate analgesic relief for the duration of labour>.
Labour: fetal signs
The liquor was
<clear throughout || green throughout || clear, then green>.
Optionally:
<a cardiotocograph was connected during the labour, and intermittent auscultation was performed>
.
Electronic fetal monitoring
<was not performed || <was performed due to:
<prolonged labor || suspected small for dates || prematurity || APH>>.
Fetal blood sampling
<was not done || was done to look for ...>
Labour: delivery/infant
The delivery was
<spontaneous vaginal || vaginal instrumental || breech || Cesarean section>
with
<a ... degree tear || <midline || mediolateral> episiotomy requiring ... stitches || no tears or episiotomy required>
at
<2:45pm>.
<Claire's>
condition at birth was
<normal, crying immediately at birth || ...>,
and weighed
<3 kg>.
A pediatrician
<was || was not>
present at the time of delivery.
<Claire>
<was admitted to the neonatal unit || went with her mother to the postnatal ward>
.
Maternal history: lochia
Her lochia is currently
<red || brown || white>,
<is odourless || has a pungent odour>,
<has no clots || has some clots>,
<is less || is more>
than a period,
and is
<getting less each day>.
Maternal history: pelvic pain
Mrs. O'Connor has
<no pelvic pain || is experiencing some pelvic pain which she describes as ...>
Maternal history: restored function
Since returning from delivery, she is
<now ambulatory || not yet ambulatory>,

<has passed her bowels || has not yet passed her bowels>,
<has no flatus || is experiencing some flatus>,
and
<has voided her bladder || has not yet voided her bladder>.
Maternal examination: affect
<Mrs. O'Connor>
looks
<clinically well>
and appears
<happy>
with her baby.
[This is a more polite way to descibe that she is not experiencing any postpartum depression/psychosis.]
Maternal examination: vitals
Her temperature is
<36.9º Celcius>.
Her pulse is
<80 bpm, regular rhythm, and normal character and volume>.
Her blood pressure is
<124/80>.
Maternal examination: general
She has
<no signs of anemia || signs of anemia including...>.
Maternal examination: chest
Her chest is
<clear, with good air entry bilaterally, and no added sounds>.
Her respiratory rate is
<18>.
Maternal examination: legs
There
<are || are no>
signs of DVTs, such as asymmetric: size, color, or temperature. There
<are || are no>
signs of superficial thrombophebitis.
Maternal examination: abdomen
On inspection of the abdomen, it is distended
<below || above>.
the umbilicus. It
<moves || does not move>
with respiration, and
<no scars are visible || there is a visible cesarean and episotomy scar that is...>.
On palpation of the abdomen, the fundus is
<2>
fingerwidths below the umbilicus.
<It is less than the expected 1 cm/day, possibly due to a full bladder as she has not voided in the last 8 hours>.
The fundus is
<normal size and shape || ...>,
<mobile || immobile>,
<regular || irregular>
,
<firm || soft>
,
and
<nontender || tender>.
If a Cesarean section was done:
The incision site appears to be
<healing well>.
The incision is
<red>,
the edges are
<well opposed>,
and there are
<stitches || stitches and steristrips>
in place.
There is
<no discharge or other signs of infection>.
There is
<no extreme abdominal distention>,
and bowels sounds are
<present and normal>.
Baby
<Clair>
appears
<well, moving all four limbs, ...> :
If bottle feeding:
<Clair>
is bottle feeding, taking
<SMA || Cow and Gate || ...>,
<50 mL>
per feed, feeding
<well>
every
<4>
hours, and is
<wetting her nappies [alternatively: if <3 days, can say "passing meconium and urine"]>.
If breast feeding:
<Clair>
is breast feeding
<8>
times a day
<and through the night>,
feeding
<on demand || by docking>,
with each feed lasting
<10 minutes, with 5 minutes per side>.
<Clair>
<is satisfied>
with her feed, and her nappies
<are wet>.
<Mrs. O'Connor>
<feels || does not feel>
her breasts empty and swell,
<has no nipple concerns, and>
<is comfortable taking Claire on and off, as she went to a class>
.
If nation's protocol is for BCG vaccination and/or Guthrie tests:
<Clair>
<had || is scheduled for>
her BCG on
<Tuesday>,
and her metabolic screen is on
<Wednesday>.
Contraception / parenting / PT
After pregancy, she
<will || will not>
<start on || go back on>
<the combing oral contraceptive pill in 4 weeks time [alternatively: starting on the day of her next period] || ...>,
<as it has offered good prote


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