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MOTOR NEURON DISEASE

MOTOR NEURON DISEASE

Aetiology is unknown. There is loss of motor neurons and glimpis in motor, motor nuclei of brainstem and anterior horn of spinal cord, with degeneration of costicospinal  tract in spinal cord.

Classification

heriditary
1. Werdnig-Hoffmann disease(infantile spinal muscular atrophy).
2. Kugelberg- welander disease(adolescent spinal muscular atrophy)

sporadic
1.Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
2. Progressive muscular atrophy.
3. Progressive bulbar palsy.
4. Primary lateral sclerosis.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
It is the most common form of progressive motor neuron disease. It is prime example of a neurodegenerative disease and is arguably the most devastating of the neurodegenerative disorder.

Pathology.
The pathologic hallmark of amyotropic lateral sclerosis is involvement of both upper and lower motor neurons.
The affected motor neurons undergo shrinkage wit accumulation of the pigment lipofuscin..Also there occurs proliferation of astroglia and microglia. In ALS, the motor neuron cytoskeleton is typically affected early in the illness..
 The death of peripheral motor neurons leads to denervation and consequent atrophy of the corresponding muscle fibre. This is basis for the term 'amyotrophy'. Loss of costical motor neurons results in thinning of the costicospinal tract.  This loss of fibres in tin lateral column and resulting fibrillary gliosis impart firmness. Hence the term lateral sclerosis.
The most remarkable feature is the selectivity of neuronck celll death. The entire sensory apparatus, the regulatory mechanism for the control and coordination of movement, and the components of the brain that are needed for cognitive processes, remain intact.
Thus motor neurons required for occular movili remains unaffected, as do the parasympathetic neurons in the sacral spinal cord that honesta the sphincters of bowel and bladder.

Clinical manifestations.
1. Weakness caused by denervation is associated with progressive wasting and atrophy of muscles, and particularly early in the illness, spontaneous twitching of motor units, or fasciculations.
2.In hands weakness is more in extensors as compared to flexors.
3. When initial involvement is that of bulbar neuron there is difficulty  with chewing, swallowing, and movements of tongue and face.
4. With prominent costicospinal involvement, there is hyperactivity of the tendon reflexes and spartia resistance to passive movements of affected limbs..
5. Degeneration of corticobulbar projections honesta the brainstem results in dysarthria and exaggeration of the motor expressions of emotion. This results in involuntsy excess in weeping or laughing.
6. Even in the late stages of the illnesss, sensory, bowel and bladder, and cognitive functions are preserved.

Diagnostic guidelines forALS by committe of the World Federation of Neurology.
Motor neurons of
1 bulbar
2. Cervical
3. Thoraccic
4. Lumbosacral
can be involved.
The disorder is termed 'definite' when three or four of above are involved.
Probable when two sites are involved.
Possible when only one site is affected.
Essential for the diagnosis is simultaneous involvement of upper and lower motor neuron.

Investigations
1. Spine radiology
2. EMG
3. Nerve conduction velocity.
4. MRI of spine.
5. Thyroid function test.
6. Lumbar puncture.

Differential diagnosis.
1 tumors in the cervical region or at foramen magnum.
2. Cervical spondylosis.
3.multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block.

Treatment
1. No treatment arrest the underlying pathologic process in ALS.
2. Riluzole 100mg/d produces a modest lengthning of survival.
It is a sodium channel blocker that inhibits glutamate release.
3. Walking aids, respiratory support and physiotherapy are helpful


Obs & Gynecology:Antenatal Examination


Obs & Gynecology:Antenatal Examination
 



Introduction
This is <Mrs.Murphy> ,a <28 year old> <schoolteacher> ,from <Dublin> ,who is <38 weeks pregnant>with her <third>
baby. The reason she is in hospital is
<a routine checkup || breech presentation || preeclampsia || diabetes || PROM || APH || ...>.
Current pregnancy: planned
The pregnancy was
<planned || unexpected>
and
<Mrs. Murphy>
<was || was not>
taking periconceptual folic acid.
[If contraception like OCP failed, you may wish to ask her why it didn't work].
Current pregnancy: confirmation
She had a positive pregnancy test at
<5>
weeks.
She booked into hospital at
<13 weeks>
and an ultrasound scan
<confirmed her menstrual dates>.
<She felt quickening at ... weeks>.
Current pregnancy: Rhesus/rubella
She is
<Rhesus positive || Rhesus negative || uncertain of her Rhesus status>
and
<rubella immune || not rubella immune || uncertain of her rubella status>.
Current pregnancy: breastfeeding
She
<breastfed || bottlefed>
her previous children and intends
<breastfeeding || bottlefeeding>
for this baby.
If breastfeeding and first child:
<She is comfortable with breastfeeding because she has taken a class>.
Current pregnancy: antenatal care
She opted for antenatal care with
<her general practitioner || this hospital>.
Her antenatal course was
<normal until she was admitted to hospital on this occasion || normal except for a ... at ... weeks gestation>.
Current pregnancy: pre-admission events
<Mrs. Murphy>
was admitted to hospital
<4 days>
ago. She complained of
<...>
Current pregnancy: hospital events
Since coming into hospital, the investigations she have had are
<....>
which showed
<...>.
<Mrs. Murphy>
tells me that she is being kept in the hospital
<for observation>.
Past medical surgical history
On briefly reviewing Mrs. Murphy's past medical and surgical history...

Family history
In her family history...
In particular, there is
<no family history>
of diabetes, and
<no>
twins in the family.
Social history
With regard to social history,
<Mrs. Murphy>
works as a
<schoolteacher>.
<She also works at home looking after her children>.
She is due to go on a
<3 month>
maternity leave in
<1 week>.

She is residing in
<a 2 bedroom apartment>.
Her husband works as a
<lawyer>.
Her children are being looked after by
<the children's grandmother>.

<Mrs. Murphy>
<does not smoke || smokes ... cigarettes a day>

Prior to the pregnancy, she
<did not smoke || smoked ... cigarettes a day>.
She has
<not taken any alcohol || has restricted herself to ... units of alcohol per week>
since finding out she was pregnant.
She
<is>
taking iron and folic acid supplements.
Gynecological history
With regards to
<Mrs. Murphy's>
past gynecological history...
Her last smear test was in
<1996>,
it was
<normal>,
and
<all of her smear tests have been normal>.
Obstetrical history
Turning our attention to
<Mrs. Murphy's>
previous obstetrical history, she has
<two girls>,
aged
<2 and 4 years>.
They are
<both well>.
If an abnormal pregnancy, full details:
In her first pregnancy, she
<was induced>
at
<39 weeks>,
and after
<2 hours || 6 hours [depending on if making start of labour as when enter labour ward]>,
<under went a Cesarean section>
because of
<fetal distress>.
The cesarean section was performed
<under epidural>.
The baby weighed
<2.5kg>
at birth and
<was not admitted || was admitted for ... days>
to the neonatal unit.
She had
<no post-operative complications || post-operative complications of ...>.
If a normal pregnancy, brief:
In her second pregnancy, she
<went into spontaneous labor>
at
<40>
weeks
and had
<a normal vaginal delivery>.
The baby weighed
<3.0kg>.
If a miscarriage, also brief:
<Mrs. Murphy>
also had
<1>
miscarriage
<14>
months ago
at
<10 weeks>
and
<underwent ERPC>.
Current pregnancy: LMP
Focusing our attention on this pregnancy, the first day of
<Mrs. Murphy's>
last menstrual period was
<Sept 18th>.
She is
<certain || uncertain>
of the date, because she
<wrote it in her diary || remembers the day of conception>.
She has a
<regular>
<28 day>

cycle, and
<stopped the combined oral contraceptive pill>
<6 months>
before becoming pregnant.
By Nageles's rule, her estimated date of delivery is
<June 25th>.
Summary of history
In summary, therefore, this is
<Mrs. Murphy>,
a
<28 year old>
<schoolteacher>,
from
<Dublin>,
who is
<38 weeks pregnant>
with her
<third>
baby.
The reason she is in hospital is
<a routine checkup || breech presentation || preeclampsia || diabetes || PROM || APH || ...>.
<Mrs. Murphy>
is being kept in the hospital
<for observation>.
Examination: general
<Mrs. Murphy>
looks
<clinically well>.
Examination: vitals
Her temperature is
<36.9º Celsius>.
Her pulse is
<80 bpm, regular rhythm, and normal character and volume>.
Her blood pressure is
<124/80>.
Her respiratory rate is
<18>.
Her urine sample is
<normal || shows elevated <protein || glucose || ...>.
Examination: disease specifics
[If she is in hospital for a disease, describe the relevant findings. For example, if preeclampsia:
She has
<pedal edema || no evidence of pedal edema>
and her lower deep tendon reflexes
<are || are not>
elevated.]
Examination: inspection
On inspection of the abdomen, there is an
<ovoid || globular>
swelling, consistent with
<the pregnant state || a ... trimester pregnancy>.
There
<are || are no>
cutaneous signs of pregnancy, such as striae gravidarum and linea nigra.
There
<are no visible scars || are visible scars consistent with a prior...>.
There
<are || are no>
visible fetal movements.
Examination: palpation
[Ask mother if tender anywhere on abdomen before touching, and also ask her to mention any discomfort of if feel faint during the examination].
I measured the symphysio-fundal height on the inches side to reduce observer error, and found it to be
<38 centimetres>,
which
<is || is not>
compatible with gestation.
The fetal parts that I feel in the fundus appear to be the
<breech>
as they are
<soft, irregular, and non-ballotable>.
The lie is
<longitudinal || transverse || oblique>
and the back would appear to be on the
<right || left>
as it offers more resistance to palpation and I feel small parts on the opposite side.
The presentation appears to be
<cephalic || breech || shoulder>.
The head
<is || is not>
engaged.
The fetus appears clinically
<normal || small || large>
in size.
The liquor volume appears clinically
<normal || reduced || increased>.
[Some obstetricians may ask about your liquor volume devining abilities: "Really? The liquor volume is normal? Perhaps we should toss out our expensive ultrasound and pay you instead." That is why it is important for you to include "clinically" in the desciption-- it is "clinically normal".]
Examination auscultation
The fetal heart is best heard over the
<back>
and
<below the level>
of the umbilicus, and is
<normal>.
Examination: summary
This is a
<singleton || multiple>
pregnancy,
<longitudinal || transverse || oblique>
lie,
<cephalic || breech>
presentation, the head
<is || is not engaged>,
the fetus is clinically
<normal || large || small>
in size, the liquor volume is clinically
<normal || reduced || increased>,
and the fetal heart is
<normal>.
Postnatal Physical Examination :
Introduction
This is
<Mrs. || Miss || Ms.>
<O'Connor
>,
a
<34 year old>
<secretary>,
from
<Dublin>,
who delivered her
<first>
baby
<two>
days ago at
<40>
weeks gestation, a
<boy || girl>
named
<Clair>
by
<spontaneous vaginal || assisted vaginal || breech || Cesarean section>
delivery,
<is || is planning>
<bottle || breast>
feeding, and
<both baby and mother are well>.
Past history
<She is a longterm diabetic, which is successfully managed with insulin>.
<She had a PDA repair in 1969>
.
<In her Obstetric history, her prior child had congenital deafness>.
<Her mother and 3 sisters all had at least one post-partum hemorrhage>.
<She smoked one pack a day since she was 16, but since finding out she was pregnant, she has limited herself to one or two cigarettes per week>.
<Before her pregnancy she consumed 3 units of alcohol per week, but she has not taken any alcohol since finding out she was pregnant>.
<She is not on any medications, and she has no allergies>.
Current pregnancy
First day of her LMP was
<November 20th>
and she is
<certain || uncertain>
of her dates, because
<she wrote it in her diary || remembers the time of conception>.
By Nagele's rule, her estimated date of delivery is
<August 27th>.
An ultrasound scan at
<13 weeks>
<confirmed her dates>
.
Her pregnancy was
<uneventful, except for a .... at 35 weeks gestation>.
She is Rhesus
<positive || negative>
and
<is || is not>
Rubella immune.
Labour: onset/duration
<Mrs. O'Connor's>
labour began with
<painful uterine contractions ... minutes apart, increasing in duration and frequency>
at
<1:00 am on Tuesday morning>
followed by
<a show and spontaneous rupture of membrane || a show but no spontaneous rupture of membrane || a spontaneous rupture of membrane || neither show nor spontaneous rupture of membrane>.
She was admitted to hospital at
<8:45 am>
by which time her cervix had dilated to
<3 cm>.
She was admitted to the antenatal ward. She was examined by the
<midwife>
and her cervix was found to be effaced and cervix dilated to
<7cm>.
A diagnosis of labour was made, and she was sent to delivery.
The first stage lasted for
<2 hours [some hospitals specify labour as time from admission to labor unit] || 9 hours>,
the second stage lasted for
<20 minutes>.
She was given
<10 units/1000mL IV of oxytocin || 500 micrograms/1ml IM of ergometrine>.
Labour: analgesia
For anaglesia, she first tried
<Nitrous oxide by inhalation>,
but subsequently requested
<an epidural at 8:45am>
which
<gave adequate analgesic relief for the duration of labour>.
Labour: fetal signs
The liquor was
<clear throughout || green throughout || clear, then green>.
Optionally:
<a cardiotocograph was connected during the labour, and intermittent auscultation was performed>
.
Electronic fetal monitoring
<was not performed || <was performed due to:
<prolonged labor || suspected small for dates || prematurity || APH>>.
Fetal blood sampling
<was not done || was done to look for ...>
Labour: delivery/infant
The delivery was
<spontaneous vaginal || vaginal instrumental || breech || Cesarean section>
with
<a ... degree tear || <midline || mediolateral> episiotomy requiring ... stitches || no tears or episiotomy required>
at
<2:45pm>.
<Claire's>
condition at birth was
<normal, crying immediately at birth || ...>,
and weighed
<3 kg>.
A pediatrician
<was || was not>
present at the time of delivery.
<Claire>
<was admitted to the neonatal unit || went with her mother to the postnatal ward>
.
Maternal history: lochia
Her lochia is currently
<red || brown || white>,
<is odourless || has a pungent odour>,
<has no clots || has some clots>,
<is less || is more>
than a period,
and is
<getting less each day>.
Maternal history: pelvic pain
Mrs. O'Connor has
<no pelvic pain || is experiencing some pelvic pain which she describes as ...>
Maternal history: restored function
Since returning from delivery, she is
<now ambulatory || not yet ambulatory>,

<has passed her bowels || has not yet passed her bowels>,
<has no flatus || is experiencing some flatus>,
and
<has voided her bladder || has not yet voided her bladder>.
Maternal examination: affect
<Mrs. O'Connor>
looks
<clinically well>
and appears
<happy>
with her baby.
[This is a more polite way to descibe that she is not experiencing any postpartum depression/psychosis.]
Maternal examination: vitals
Her temperature is
<36.9º Celcius>.
Her pulse is
<80 bpm, regular rhythm, and normal character and volume>.
Her blood pressure is
<124/80>.
Maternal examination: general
She has
<no signs of anemia || signs of anemia including...>.
Maternal examination: chest
Her chest is
<clear, with good air entry bilaterally, and no added sounds>.
Her respiratory rate is
<18>.
Maternal examination: legs
There
<are || are no>
signs of DVTs, such as asymmetric: size, color, or temperature. There
<are || are no>
signs of superficial thrombophebitis.
Maternal examination: abdomen
On inspection of the abdomen, it is distended
<below || above>.
the umbilicus. It
<moves || does not move>
with respiration, and
<no scars are visible || there is a visible cesarean and episotomy scar that is...>.
On palpation of the abdomen, the fundus is
<2>
fingerwidths below the umbilicus.
<It is less than the expected 1 cm/day, possibly due to a full bladder as she has not voided in the last 8 hours>.
The fundus is
<normal size and shape || ...>,
<mobile || immobile>,
<regular || irregular>
,
<firm || soft>
,
and
<nontender || tender>.
If a Cesarean section was done:
The incision site appears to be
<healing well>.
The incision is
<red>,
the edges are
<well opposed>,
and there are
<stitches || stitches and steristrips>
in place.
There is
<no discharge or other signs of infection>.
There is
<no extreme abdominal distention>,
and bowels sounds are
<present and normal>.
Baby
<Clair>
appears
<well, moving all four limbs, ...> :
If bottle feeding:
<Clair>
is bottle feeding, taking
<SMA || Cow and Gate || ...>,
<50 mL>
per feed, feeding
<well>
every
<4>
hours, and is
<wetting her nappies [alternatively: if <3 days, can say "passing meconium and urine"]>.
If breast feeding:
<Clair>
is breast feeding
<8>
times a day
<and through the night>,
feeding
<on demand || by docking>,
with each feed lasting
<10 minutes, with 5 minutes per side>.
<Clair>
<is satisfied>
with her feed, and her nappies
<are wet>.
<Mrs. O'Connor>
<feels || does not feel>
her breasts empty and swell,
<has no nipple concerns, and>
<is comfortable taking Claire on and off, as she went to a class>
.
If nation's protocol is for BCG vaccination and/or Guthrie tests:
<Clair>
<had || is scheduled for>
her BCG on
<Tuesday>,
and her metabolic screen is on
<Wednesday>.
Contraception / parenting / PT
After pregancy, she
<will || will not>
<start on || go back on>
<the combing oral contraceptive pill in 4 weeks time [alternatively: starting on the day of her next period] || ...>,
<as it has offered good prote


Source: www.doctorshangout.com

Pediatrics Physical Examination


Pediatrics Physical Examination





History - Pediatrics
Introductory information
  • Introduce, establish rapport.
  • Name, age, gender.
  • Person giving the history (parent, etc).
  • Origin.
Presenting complaint
  • Description of the presenting complaint, in chronological order.
  • Including whether came in through casualty or admitted by GP.
History of presenting complaint
  • SOCRATES:
  • Time course: seasonal or diurnal fluctuation.
  • Exacerbating factors: foods.
  • Referral by GP vs. came in through casualty.
  • Relevant negatives.
  • If using slang, ask for clarification.
Past medical, surgical history
Birth history
  • Length of gestation.
  • Age and parity of mother at delivery.
  • Any maternal insults [alcohol, smoking] or illnesses during gestation.
  • Where born: city, hospital.
  • Birth weight, mode of delivery, difficulties in delivery.
  • Resuscitation, intensive care requirement at birth.


  • Cyanosis, pallor, jaundice, convulsions, birthmarks, malformations, feeding or respiratory difficulties.
  • Apgar score at birth if known.
  • How baby was fed in first few days.
  • Whether child went home with mother.
Nutritional history
  • Breast-fed vs. bottle-fed
    • When breast started, stopped.
    • If formula: type, amount, pre-mixed vs concentrate [and dilution used].
  • Vitamin supplements.
  • Age when beikost started.
  • Appetite and growth.
  • Current diet.
Immunization history
Illnesses and operations
  • Past illnesses, operations.
  • Childhood illness, obs/gyn.
    • Tests and treatment prescribed for these.
    • Problems with the anesthetic in surgery.
Developmental history
Education history
  • Start of school attendance.
  • Where attend school.
  • Special needs requirements.
  • Impact of symptoms: absent school days.
Family history
  • The current complaint in parents/ siblings: health, cause of death, age of onset, age of death.
  • Parents/siblings: age, health, where living.
  • Height and weight of parents.
  • Hereditary dz suspected: do a family tree.
Social, personal history
  • Age, occupation of parents.
  • Race and migration of parents [if relevant].
  • Any others at daycare/ school with same complaint.
  • Travel: where, how lived when there, immunization/ prophylactic status when went.
  • Does the child live at home, and with whom [include siblings].
  • Smokers in the home.
  • Pets in the home.
  • "Is there some things that worry you about the symptoms you child is having?"
Drug history
  • Prescriptions currently on: dose, when started, what for.
  • OTCs.
  • Alternative medications.
  • Allergies, and reaction of each:
    • Eczema, asthma, hay fever, hives.
    • Drugs, foods, dyes.
Systems review
  • See Systems Review below.
History tips
  • Use "the father" or "the mother" instead of "your husband" or "your wife", as current spouse may not be the genetic parent, also avoids issue of a divorce/separation.
  • Parents may use slang. Ask "do you mean..." for clarification as needed.
  • Ask if the temperature was actually measured, and if so, what it was.
Examination - Pediatrics
Environment
  • Nebulizers, drugs on dresser.
  • Special food, including sugar-free (DM).
  • Mobility-assisting devices.
  • Hospital equipment.
General appearance
  • Pre-exam checklist: WIPE:
    • Wash your hands [thus warming them].
    • Introduce yourself to pt, explain what going to do.
    • Position pt [+/- on parent's knee].
    • Expose area as needed [parent should undress].
  • Examine from the R side of the pt.
  • Posture, body positions, body shape.
  • Skin colors. See Skin Colors Reference.
  • Hydration.
  • Dress, hygiene.
  • Alertness, happiness.
  • Crying: high-pitched vs. normal.
  • Any unusual behavior.
  • Parent-child interaction, reaction to someone new walking entering the room (child abuse).
  • Ask if tenderness anywhere, before start touching them.
  • If asleep, do the heart, lungs and abdomen first.
Arms, vital signs
Heart
  • Inspection:
    • Precordial bulge.
    • Apical heave.
  • Palpation:
    • Apex beat location.
    • Thrills, heaves.
  • Auscultation:
    • Site, radiation.
    • Pitch, quality, character.
    • Intensity, rhythm, duration.
    • Changes with respiration, posture.
    • Carotid bruits.
  • See Pediatric Heart Reference.
Lungs
  • Inspection:
    • Spinal curvature.
    • Tanner stage (female). See Tanner Stages Reference.
    • Accessory muscles of respiration [respiratory pattern is abdominal <6yrs].
    • Intercostal respiration (respiratory obstruction).
  • Palpation
    • Fremitus
  • Percussion:
    • Dull and resonant areas.
  • Auscultation:
    • Crackles.
    • Wheeze.
Abdomen
  • Inspection:
    • Shape.
    • Visible swellings, hernias.
    • Umbilicus, veins.
    • Visible peristalsis.
  • Percussion [often optional]:
    • Fluid wave, shifting dullness.
    • Liver, spleen.
  • Palpation:
    • Masses.
    • Areas of ternderness, rebound, guarding.
    • Liver, spleen: <6 years may palpate up to 2cm below costal margin.
    • Kidneys, bladder.
  • Auscultation:
    • Bowel sounds.
Diaper, genitalia, anus
  • Only perform when indicated.
  • Diaper:
    • Inspect contents.
    • Have MSU bottle ready if indicated.
  • Male:
    • Testes decent, hernias.
    • Circumcision, testes, hydrocele.
  • Female:
    • Vulva, clitoris.
  • Both sexes:
    • Discharge.
    • Abnormalities.
    • Tanner stage.
  • Anus inspection:
    • Hemorrhoids, fissures, prolapse.
    • Sphincter tone, tenderness, mass.
    • PR exam isn't done on children.
Legs, feet
  • Infants: hip abduction in infants with knees flexed.
  • Feet abnormalities, such as rocker-bottom feet.
  • Similar signs as seen in hands, nails.
Nervous
  • Can often skip these, as should already have good idea by now.
  • Abnormalities during play.
  • Limbs: movement, tone, limp, Gower's sign.
  • Head control.
  • Reflexes:
    • Moro and tonic neck reflexes <3months.
    • Babinski's sign positive <12-15 months.
    • Hypertonicity commonly is normal infants, but hypotonicity is abnormal.
    • Other reflexes: grasp, suck, root, stepping and placing.
  • Meningitis signs if indicated: Kernig, Brudzinski.
Integumental
Head and neck
  • Head circumference, rate of growth.
  • Head asymmetry, microcephaly, macrocephaly, other visible abnormalities.
  • Fontanelle, if <18 months:
    • Full vs. flat vs. depressed.
  • Thyroid enlargement, other lumps.
  • Neck stiffness.
  • Neck lymph nodes: location, size in cm, tenderness, consistency.
Eyes
  • Exam position: mother holds child on lap facing forward, one arm encircling child's arms, the other hand on child's forehead.
  • Pupils: reaction to light, accommodation.
  • Strabismus [aka squint].
    • Strabismus is normal before 4-6 months.
  • Photophobia, proptosis, sclerae, conjunctivae, ptosis, congenital cataracts.
  • Fundoscopy. See Eye Exam.
Ears
  • Exam position: same as eye, but child faces the side.
  • Discharge, canals, external ear tenderness.
  • Test hearing.
  • Otoscope to examine ear drums.
Nose
  • Nares patency, septum, nasal flaring.
  • Discharge, mucous membranes, sinus tenderness.
Throat
  • Breath odor.
  • Lips: color, fissures and dryness.
  • Tongue.
  • Teeth: number, arrangement, dental caries.
  • Gums: color, hypertrophy (phenytoin)
  • Throat: epiglottis
  • Tonsils: size, signs of inflammation.
Height, weight
  • Measure and plot on appropriate centile chart.
Examination tips
  • Can establish rapport while checking cyanosis, dyspnea, cough.
    • Can examine teddy bear first.
  • Best examination method by age:
    • Neonates, very young infants: on examining table
    • Up through preschool: lying sit on mother's lap
    • Adolescent: without family present.
  • Parent, not examiner, should undress a small child.
  • Kids are impatient, so a systematic full examination may get difficult. Examine the most pertinent area first.
  • Record respiratory rate first, before crying starts.
  • In child, breath sounds are easier to hear, but harder to localize.
  • ENT exam more likely to induce a cry so these go last.
  • Opportunism:
    • If child dozes, auscultation heart.
    • While parent removes shirt, examine shoulder/arm movement, head control.
    • If child kicks examiner, observe hip range of motion.
    • If cries, the deep breaths between each cry can reveal rales with stethoscope.

Systems Review - Pediatrics
Cardiovascular
  • Chest pain, pressure
  • Shortness of breath, exertion required
  • Lie flat or use pillows, how many pillows
  • Awoke breathless at night
  • Noticed heart racing, aware of heartbeat
  • Ankle swelling
  • Cold/ blue hands, feet
Pulmonary
  • Sore throats, earaches
  • Cough: sputum, blood
  • Shortness of breath, wheeze
  • Snore loudly, apnea
  • Fever, night sweats
  • Recent chest X-ray
Alimentary
  • Weight, appetite changes
  • Abdominal pain or discomfort
  • Bloating, distention
  • Indigestion
  • Nausea, vomiting: contents
  • Bowel habits: change, number
  • Incontinence, constipation/ diarrhea
  • Stool: colour, blood/ black, consistency, mucous
Nervous
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness, vertigo
  • Faints, seizures, blackouts
  • Weakness, numbness
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Limp, ataxia, tremors
  • Concentration, memory
Genitourinary
  • Enursesis
  • Changes to urine quantity, colour
  • Blood in urine
  • Genital rashes, lumps
  • Sex life problems
  • Pain, bleeding in periods

Endocrine
  • Prefer hot or cold weather
  • Sweating
  • Fatigue
  • Hand trembling
  • Neck swelling
  • Skin, hair, voice changes
  • Thirst
Integumental
  • Itchy
  • Rashes
  • Bruising
  • Swelling
  • Colour changes
Hematological
  • Bruise easily, difficulty stopping bleeds
  • Lumps under arms, neck, loin
  • Clots in legs, lungs
  • Fevers, shakes, shivers
Rheumatoid
  • Joints: pain, stiffness, swollen
  • Variation in joint pain during day
  • Fingers painful/ blue in cold
  • Dry mouth, red eyes
  • Skin rash
  • Back, neck pain
Is patient their regular self?
Anything else you think I should know?


Source: www.doctorshangout.com